The Biochemistry of Treatment (pg 8)
VII. Superoxide Scavengers
Superoxide radical is also produced, feeding into the vicious cycle (see chemical diagram). To prevent this tissue damaging cycle, superoxide scavengers are needed.
Grape seed proanthocyanidin has shown scavenging ability.90 This protocol uses the same brand (Activin) shown effective in research.90 Catechins have also shown superoxide scavenging ability in multiple studies,91 92 93 94 with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) likely the most effective. 94
Catechins also reduce peroxynitrite radical damage.91 These catechins are a form of flavinoids. Silymarin, discussed above, also helps with superoxide scavenging by improving function of the body’s defense mechanism, superoxide dismutase (SOD).95 96 Vitamins C and E also have some superoxide protection.90 91 Folate also reduces superoxide by stabilizing nitric oxide (reducing excess enzyme nitric oxide synthase).56
VIII. Reducing NMDA Activation and Improving GABA Function
Taurine helps make GABA97 (GABA calms NMDA excess). Taurine reduces breakdown of the relaxing brain messenger GABA98. It also binds to GABA, increasing the brain calming GABA effect.99 Improving GABA function reduces these vicious cycles (neural sensitization) and also improves sleep. It is taken in the evening without protein for better adsorption and sleep.
Bioactive vitamin B6 (pyridoxal-5-phosphate) lowers excess NMDA activity. It can do this in two ways. It helps convert glutamine (excitotoxic) to GABA, a relaxing neurotransmitter (nerve messenger substance). It thus protects nerve cells from damage of glutamate.88 It also helps convert cysteine (which can be excitotoxic) to taurine (which is calming). Pyridoxal-5-phosphate, the bioactive form, is more effective than other forms of B6.100 The bioactive form is used in this chemical injury treatment (neural protocol).
IX. Energy/Mitochondria Function
Acetyl-L-carnitine is more active than L-carnitine101 and it enters cells, including brain/nerve cells better. It helps energy metabolism.102 This helps provide adequate energy needed for reducing the excess NMDA over-activation. 103 104 Thus acetyl carnitine is needed to stop the vicious cycles and allow healing from chemical injury.
Ample manganese is used because this helps the protective enzyme SOD that works in the energy- generating mitochondria and helps protect from chemical injury.105
Thiamine, riboflavin (discussed above), bioactive niacin as niacinamide, lipoic acid, chromium106 and magnesium are all also needed for normal energy metabolism.
Pantethine is the bioactive form (what works in the body) of B6. Pantethine is essential for energy metabolism106 and essential for healing membranes and brain/nerve myelin.106
Coenzyme Q10 is essential to protect the energy mitochondria from free radical damage and needed for energy structure (mitochondrial) repair.107 Coenzyme Q10 helps protect from chemical injury.105
Molybdenum also helps the body make energy and helps the body detoxify (get rid of chemicals).106
Biotin is essential for energy metabolism.106 107 108 It is produced by healthy intestinal bacteria107 107 and can be depleted by antibiotics.106 Absorption is reduced by raw egg white.107 107 Deficiency can cause fatigue, dry skin, scaly dermatitis, muscle aching and other symptoms.106 Biotin is also needed for the (elongase) enzyme that helps the body make EPA, DHA, GLA and other essential body fats108 for cell membrane/nerve myelin.
X. Myelin and Cell Membrane Repair
The brain and nerves to your muscles, joints, skin, etc. have a protective coating of myelin essential for nerve function. Free radicals damage myelin. Myelin requires omega 3 EPA, DHA, phosphatidylcholine (Phosphaline) and other phospholipids (dry forms don’t work). Myelin also needs saturated fats from organic sources. A “low fat” diet can damage myelin. Avoid all synthetic fats (margarine and other trans fats, hydrogenated fats, deep fat fried, heated fat oils, olestra, etc.). These impair cell and myelin function.
Phosphatidyl choline is essential for membrane and myelin (brain/nerve) function.76 Omega 3 essential fatty acids helps reduce excess nitric oxide109 110 111 and lower inflammation effects.
Tocotrienols are also needed. They protect similar to vitamin E but are better able to enter the brain.
Medical References (footnotes)--Neural Sensitization: The Key to Medical Treatment
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