Leafy branch representing clean environmentChemistry beakers and flasks filled with colored liquidsTrees in an old growth mountainside forestView of snow-capped mountain rangeChemistry lab beakers and test tubesScene of a mountain lake reflecting the trees and clouds       Home | Hazardous Substances | Preventing Chemical Injury | New Treatment for Chemical Injury | Medical Care Environmental Controls | Chemical Updates | "Corporate Crime" | Media and Video | About Dr. Grace Ziem | Search

The Biochemistry of Treatment (pg 8)



Superoxide radical is also produced, feeding into the vicious cycle (see chemical diagram). To prevent this tissue damaging cycle, superoxide scavengers are needed. The following are available to be compounded into the protocol.

Grape seed proanthocyanidin has shown superoxide scavenging ability.135 The Ziem protocol uses the same brand (Activin) shown effective in research135-137 scavenging free radicals136 and helping cells survive.137

Catechins have also shown superoxide scavenging ability in multiple studies138-141 with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) likely the most effective.138-140 Catechins also reduce peroxynitrite radical damage.141 These catechins are a form of flavonoid.

Silymarin, discussed above, also helps with superoxide scavenging by improving function of the body’s SOD defense mechanism.142,143 Vitamins C and E also have some superoxide protection.141 Folate also reduces superoxide by stabilizing nitric oxide (reducing excess enzyme nitric oxide synthase).100



Magnesium levels must be ample. Deficiency is very common with toxic injury77 and this allows MNDA activation. Magnesium acts as a blocker of the NMDA nerve receptor,65-67 thus reducing nerve pain and its inflammation.144

Reducing NMDA activation helps reduce damaging peroxynitrite.6,10,12,13,63 Magnesium is also a calcium channel blocker and can help bronchoconstriction.65 Low magnesium is common in the U.S. population. 24,145,146

Taurine helps make GABA.147 GABA calms NMDA excess, and thus relaxes respiratory tightness69 e.g. bronchial constriction, throat tightness etc. Taurine reduces breakdown of the relaxing brain messenger GABA.148 It also binds to GABA, increasing the brain calming GABA effect.70,149 Improving GABA function reduces these vicious cycles (neural sensitization) and also improves sleep. Taurine is taken in the evening without protein for better adsorption and sleep: midevening for difficulty falling asleep and bedtime for nighttime awakening.

Bioactive vitamin B6 (pyridoxal-5-phosphate) lowers excess NMDA activity. It can do this in two ways. It helps convert glutamate (excitotoxic) to GABA,24,68 a relaxing neurotransmitter (nerve messenger substance). It thus protects nerve cells from damage of glutamate.132 It helps convert excess cysteine (which can be excitotoxic) to taurine (which is calming). It calms the vicious cycle36 and helps bronchoconstriction.150 Pyridoxal-5-phosphate, the bioactive form, is more effective than other forms of B6.151 The bioactive form is used in the Ziem chemical injury treatment (neural protocol).



Acetyl-L-carnitine is more active than L-carnitine57 and it enters cells, including brain/nerve cells better. It helps energy metabolism.58-60,152 This helps provide adequate energy needed for reducing the excess NMDA over-activation.110,153 Thus acetyl carnitine is needed to stop the vicious cycle and allow healing from chemical injury.

Manganese is used because it is needed for function of the protective enzyme SOD24 that works in the energy-generating mitochondria and helps protect from chemical injury.154

Thiamine,24 riboflavin24 (discussed above), bioactive niacin as niacinamide, lipoic acid, chromium24 and magnesium24 are all also needed for normal energy metabolism.155

Pantethine is the bioactive form of B5.24 Pantethine is essential for energy metabolism24 and essential for healing membranes and brain/nerve myelin.24 Low pantethine often indicates adrenal strain and bioactive pantethine helps adrenal function.156 Better adrenal function helps reduce inflammation.

Coenzyme Q10 is essential to making energy.54-56 It also protects the energy producing mitochondria from free radical damage 55,56 and is needed for energy structure (mitochondrial) repair.157 Coenzyme Q10 helps protect from chemical injury.154

Molybdenum also helps the body make energy and helps the body detoxify (get rid of chemicals).24 It is needed for many body enzymes158 including but not limited to sulfite oxidase159 to process essential body sulfur compounds.160 Patients who have trouble with sulfur containing foods (cabbage, broccoli, other crucifers, onion/garlic family) may lack adequate manganese (200 mcg daily is usually adequate).

Biotin is essential for energy metabolism.50,52,157,161 It is produced by healthy intestinal bacteria and can be depleted by antibiotics.24 Absorption is reduced by raw egg white.157 Deficiency can cause fatigue, dry skin, scaly dermatitis, muscle aching and other symptoms.24 Biotin is also needed for the (elongase) enzyme that helps the body make EPA, DHA, GLA and other essential body fats161 for cell membranes and nerve myelin.

These substances act biochemically in different ways in the complex energy process of making electrical energy from food nutrients.



The brain and nerves to your muscles, joints, skin, etc. have a protective coating of myelin essential for nerve function. Free radicals damage myelin. Myelin requires omega-3 EPA, DHA, phosphatidylcholine (Phosphaline) and other phospholipids (dry forms don’t work).

Phospholipids in lipid form help nerve function.162

Myelin also needs saturated fats from organic sources. A “low fat” diet can damage myelin. Avoid all synthetic fats (margarine and other trans fats, hydrogenated fats, deep fried, heated fat oils, olestra, etc.). Heating or cooking with oils, even olive oil, forms damaging trans fats. These impair cell and myelin function. For cooking use organic coconut “oil”, butter, ghee, or lard/animal fat.

Phosphatidyl choline is essential for membrane and myelin  function.116

Xymogen Phosphaline and Body Bio PC liquid provides excellent phosphatidyl choline ready for the body to use. Xymogen Phosphaline 4:1 provides phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl inositol for patients with Spectracell of below average “choline” and “inositol”.

Omega 3 essential fatty acids helps reduce excess nitric oxide163-165 and lower inflammation effects.

Tocotrienols may also be needed. They protect similar to vitamin E but are better able to enter the brain.

Phosphatidyl serine in lipid form helps memory166 and a DHA-conjugated form (e.g. Neurokrill) avoids risks of bovine-transmitted infection. The krill form appears more effective than soy based.167 Phosphatidylserine linked to EPA/DHA significantly improved cognitive function.162

Phosphatidyl serine may be needed if “serine” tests below average on SpectraCell, especially if neurologic symptoms are present and/or neurocalming is needed (e.g. sleep, “hyper’ effects).

Medical References (footnotes)--Neural Sensitization: The Key to Medical Treatment

Next page: Pg 9 - Testing

Previous page


Copyright 2005-2009, Chemical Injury.NET  All Rights Reserved

[HOME] [HazardousSubstances] [PreventingChemicalInjury] [Neural Sensitization] [Neural Sensitization: The Medical  Key to Treatment] [Neural Sensitization: Treating Chemical Injury Step by Step] [MedicalCare] [EnvironmentalControls] [ChemicalUpdates] [CorporateCrimes] [VideosAndMedia] [Biosketch] [SearchControls] [SiteMap] [Test Page]