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The Biochemistry of Treatment (pg 7)


5. SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) PROTECTIVE ENZYME

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a protective body enzyme that helps interrupt the vicious cycle.46 SOD needs adequate zinc, copper, and manganese to function.24,45,46 It stops damaging superoxide from forming more peroxynitrite and also protects the mitochondria from damage.

SOD also has other antioxidant actions.14 SOD cofactors of zinc, copper and manganese are often reduced in chemically injured patients.73 These mineral cofactors must be properly balanced as too much of one will reduce the other. SpectraCell testing greatly helps balance these minerals and they should be replaced in well absorbed and transported forms, for example, picolinates.



Trimethyl glycine (betaine) is recommended as a methyl donor to reduce the damage of peroxynitrite. Betaine (trimethyl glycine), liquid phosphatidyl choline (e.g., Phosphaline), MTHF, and other methyl nutrients can reduce chemical effects.116

Adequate genetic enzyme MTHFR is needed to make bioactive folate. This enzyme often has impaired function. If folate is reduced, the genetic ability for MTHFR can be tested for this enzyme function. The two genes are often called “677” and “1298”. Thus the neural protocol provides oral bioactive folate: MTHF. This acts as a methyl donor to reduce damage from peroxynitrite.



Natural Vitamin E as high gamma tocopherol (e.g. Thorne Ultimate E, Xymogen HG) is discussed above because it is essential for all vicious cycle patients and easily tolerated by almost everyone. Dr. Ziem has used Metagenics E Complex 1:1 as a treatment in patients with difficulty swallowing or children because of the very small capsule size and has observed improvement in swallowing ability as inflammation decreases.

A mixture of carotenoids is also needed to scavenge peroxynitrite. Carotenoids can be more organ-specific. An inclusion of gingko117,118 (brain), silymarin53,119,120 (liver), bilberry121,122 (collagen stabilizing, capillary permeability, vision), cranberry123,124 ( urinary) and other mixed carotenoids125,126 is recommended. Carotenoids like lutein, zeaxanthin and astaxanthin are lipid soluble and improve neurologic function.127

Silymarin scavenges peroxynitrite and also enhances the body’s detoxification enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in cells.107,128 SOD is important to help control the neural sensitization vicious cycle.

Bilberry is a potent flavonoid antioxidant that reduces blood vessel and capillary fragility and permeability,129 and improves damaged neurologic function.130 Bioflavinoids help body cells make more glutathione,131 the body’s essential antioxidant.44,132

Lycopene protects from nitric oxide damage.133

Taurine has been shown to reduce lipid damage (forming of lipid peroxides) from peroxynitrite.134

Astaxanthin is a separate lipid soluble antioxidant that can help nerves and brain.127

Medical References (footnotes)--Neural Sensitization: The Key to Medical Treatment

Next page: Pg 8 - The Biochemistry of Treatment (continued)

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